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A melanoma is a cancerous tumour that develops from skin cells called melanocytes that synthesise skin pigment. 11,000 new cases are diagnosed every year in France. Prolonged exposure to UV rays and the accumulation of the mutations that it causes are the main avoidable risk factor of this cancer. A melanoma can become serious if it propagates in the body. Targeted therapies and immunotherapy have recently demonstrated significant benefits in the treatment of this difficult cancer.